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Note: This table is aggregated. Refer to the full table to see the source-by-source breakdown of recommendations.

Recommendation % of Sources Recommending
Create an all-hazards Emergency Response Plan 95%
Adopt an emergency mass notification and communications system 95%
Establish multidisciplinary team to respond to crises (e.g., Threat Assessment Team) 80%
Review and train personnel regarding privacy/info sharing policies such as FERPA and HIPAA 80%
Have a MOU with local health agencies and other key partners in the community 75%
Practice/train for emergency plans 75%
Educate and train students, faculty, and staff about mass notification system, and their roles and responsibilities in an emergency 70%
Educate faculty, staff, and students about recognizing and responding to signs of mental illness and other potential threats 60%
Conduct risk and safety assessments 60%
Have an interoperable communication system with all area responders 55%
Ensure that all responder agencies are trained in National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) 50%
Regularly evaluate/update emergency plans 45%
Provide on-campus counseling and case workers 40%
Maintain full compliance with Clery Act 40%
Install cameras/CCTV at building entrances/ exits and other critical areas on campus 35%
Create a culture of shared responsibility for campus safety 35%
Get public safety agency accredited through CALEA and/or IACLEA 35%
Establish protocol for identifying & responding to students who may pose potential threat 30%
Address alcohol & drug abuse and other major issues on campus 30%
Designate single point of contact for external communication during/after emergency 30%
Attempt to eliminate financial, cultural, and logistical barriers to students receiving mental health treatment (e.g., sufficient staff, insurance, etc.) 30%
Utilize Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) 25%
Develop and keep updated policy on bringing weapons on campus 25%
Install locking systems in all buildings, offices and classrooms 25%
Conduct regularly scheduled table top exercises 25%
Regularly test mass notification system 25%
Secure buildings with keyless locking devices (such as automated cards) that can be controlled remotely 25%
Provide services for victims and/or families of victims 25%
Maintain up-to-date emergency contact information for students and/or employees 25%
Develop an "active shooter" response plan and provide training for police 20%
Train mental health personnel and first responders on requirements for involuntary hospitalization, treatment, and withdrawal 20%
Ensure all physical safety mechanisms (locks, etc.), emergency call-boxes, and emergency lights are functional 20%
Establish a hotline or some other mechanism for anonymous reporting 20%
Conduct criminal background checks for faculty, staff, and/or students 15%
Develop contingency plans for loss of power, telecommunications, and relocation 15%
Establish an Emergency Operations Center 15%
Ensure that campus is well-lit and/or provide emergency lighting 15%
Ensure that all outside first responders have campus maps 10%
Develop messages to de-stigmatize mental illness 10%
Use International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) guidelines for best practices in mental health services 10%
Purchase satellite phones 10%
Create campus safety resource/info website 10%
Provide EMT/ first-responder/ crisis intervention training for campus safety officers 10%
Have campus police/security provide information about safety and mental health services during orientation 10%
Equip classrooms with locking devices allowing them to be secured from within 10%
Establish system to track and communicate with campus members who disperse during an emergency 5%
Expand opportunities for incoming students to integrate into campus community 5%
Place campus on lockdown in the event of threatening conduct on or adjacent to campus 5%
Equip all classrooms with telephones and/or panic buttons 5%
Encourage all incoming students living in residence halls to consent to periodic searches and seizures 5%
Ensure that all entrance/exit gates are manned 24 hours a day 5%
Prepare mass notification messages in advance for all identified potential threats 5%
Inform students and employees on locations of safe areas for waiting out emergency 5%
Add "Intro to Mental Health" course to undergraduate curriculum 5%
Have employee assistance programs 5%
Maintain photographs of all students 5%
Institute program to end violence against women 5%


AG: Report and Recommendations of Task Force on School and Campus Safety, National Association of Attorneys General, 2007.

COPS: National Summit on Campus Public Safety: Strategies for Colleges and Universities in a Homeland Security Environment; COPS, 2005.

Exp: Expecting the Unexpected: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Tragedy; American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2007.

FL:  Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety, State of Florida, 2007.

IACLEA:  Overview of the Virginia Tech Tragedy and Implications for Campus Safety: The IACLEA Blueprint for Safer Campuses; The International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, 2008.

IL: State of Illinois Campus Security Task Force Report to the Governor, 2008.

KY: Report to the Governor: Examination of Safety and Security at Kentucky's Public and Private Postsecondary Institutions; Governor's Task Force on Campus Safety, 2007.

MO: Securing our Future: Making Colleges and Universities Safe Places to Learn and Grow; Missouri Campus Security Task Force, 2007.

NJ: New Jersey Campus Security Task Force Report Submitted to Governor Jon S. Corzine, 2007.

NM: (1) Recommendations for Action: Emergency Preparedness in Higher Education; New Mexico Governor's Task Force on Campus Safety, 2007; (2) Final Report, Subcommittee on Mitigation, Protocols, and Infrastructure, New Mexico Governor's Task Force on Campus Safety, 2008.

NSU: Campus Safety and Security Task Force Final Report, Norfolk State University, 2007.

NC: Report to the Campus Safety Task Force Presented to Attorney General Roy Cooper, North Carolina, 2008.

OK: Campus Life and Safety and Security Task Force (CLASS) Final Report, Oklahoma, 2008.

PA: Pennsylvania College Campus Security Assessment Report; Pennsylvania State Police, 2007.

Pres: Report to the President: On Issues Raised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy; Leavitt, Gonzales, & Spellings, 2007.

UCA: The Report of the University of California Campus Security Task Force; University of California Office of the President, 2008.

UNC: The University of North Carolina Campus Safety Task Force Report to the President, 2007.

VA TP: Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, Report of the Review Panel Presented to Governor Kaine, Commonwealth of Virginia, 2007.

VA WG: Findings and Recommendations of the Virginia Working Group for Virginia Tech President Charles Steger, 2007.

WI: Governor's Task Force on Campus Safety, Wisconsin, 2007

Note: While every attempt was made to capture and reflect accurately the recommendations contained in the referenced reports, no claim or guarantee is made or inferred that this list is all inclusive. Please refer to the individual reports for a complete list.

>> Next Section: Appendix C. Recommended Roundtable Discussion Topics


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